Uendelezaji wa Ujasiriamali
Raising Skills and Knowledge Levels is one of the nine pillars of the National Economic Empowerment Policy, 2004. The pillar intends to address challenges of low level of skills, education and lack of resources which limit participation of many Tanzanians in economic activities.
Given the challenges, the Government committed to revisit the education system with the objective of enhancing a scientific outlook to overcome inhibitive culture and traditions and to mould Tanzanians who are self-confident, innovative, and who strongly desire to conduct their business efficiently and effectively. In other words, the education system should create a foundation for entrepreneurship development. To this end, the education system curricular will be tailored to ensure skills development in line with the demands of competitive markets.
It is from this requirement that the National Economic Empowerment Council in collaboration with Stakeholders prepared the National Entrepreneurship Framework and Inclusive National Entrepreneurship Strategy as tools to facilitate and coordinate Entrepreneurship implementation by stakeholders.
2.0. THE NATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP FRAMEWORK
In 2013, NEEC in collaboration with International Labour Organisation (ILO), Tanzania Commission for Universities (TCU), Tanzania Institute of Education (TIE), National Accreditation Council of Tanzania (NACTE) and Vocation Education Training Authority (VETA) developed and issued the National Entrepreneurship Training Framework (NETF) with the aim of integrating entrepreneurship in both formal and non-formal education system. In the formal education, NETF covers pre-primary, primary, secondary and tertiary education up to first-degree level. In non-formal education, it covers business start-up, consolidation and growth, internationalization, corporate entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship. The overall objective of the NETF is to provide a minimum of learning outcomes, methods, guidelines for the quality of facilitators and assessment techniques to be used in entrepreneurship training. However, to date, the usage of the NETF to drive non-formal education (key area of interest for SME Finance) has been low. The low usage is due mainly to two factors: 1) un coordinated BDS Providers sub-sector: 2) absence of standardized/ customized training modules to cater different segments (Micro-Small-Medium-Enterprises).
NETF provides a minimum of learning outcomes, methods, guidelines for the quality of facilitators and assessment techniques to be used in entrepreneurship training in Tanzania. Specifically, the document provides guidance on the following:-
- Key objectives of entrepreneurship training at each level of formal and non-formal education.
- Minimum competencies that are to be developed at each level of formal education.
- Competencies to be developed for main types and levels of non-formal education.
- Approaches, methods, teaching strategies, assessment tools and facilitators to be used to generate the desired learning outcomes at various levels.
In order to address the low usage of NETF by the informal setting NEEC in collaboration with stakeholders is undertaking the following:
- Coordinate mapping of Business Development Providers countrywide in order to determine its capacity and requirement.
- Develop Standardize Training Guide for BDS providers towards enhancement of MSMEs.
- Coordinate the formation of BDS Providers coordination structure (body).
3.0. INCLUSIVE NATIONAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP STRATEGY
The Inclusive National Entrepreneurship Strategy (INES) has been developed through an integrative and collaborative process, including literature review, a survey and stakeholder consultative workshops under the leadership of the National Economic Empowerment Council (NEEC). The Implementation of the strategy goes simultaneously with the implementation of the National Entrepreneurship Framework.
The Strategy presents an inclusive national entrepreneurship strategy for Tanzania in view to achieve the economic empowerment and effective participation in social progress of all citizens, including youth, women, the rural poor and other disadvantaged groups. It is an inclusive strategy in two ways. First, it is holistic in the sense that it integrates five key areas for realisation of entrepreneurship development. Secondly, it seeks outcomes for all relevant segments of society, including the marginalized (youth, women, those with disability), innovative and high-tech and high growth start-ups, etc.
The Strategy outlines six pillars which support the growth of MSMEs in Tanzania. These are:
- Implementing a National Entrepreneurship Strategy;
- Optimizing the Regulatory Framework;
- Enhancing Entrepreneurship Education and Skills Development;
- Facilitating Technology Exchange and Innovation;
- Improving Access to Finance; and
- Promoting Awareness and Networking.
The Strategy also takes into account the institutional arrangements and coordination by the key drivers of the six areas of the strategy (i.e. lead institutions - Ministries, Departments, agencies, private sector, etc.). The Prime Minister’s Office, through NEEC – which has coordinated development of the Strategy will take overall leadership and responsibility for coordination, monitoring and evaluation.The priority actions identified are part of mandates of different private and public-sector’s actors, and some are already being implemented.It is expected that each actor will implement or cause implementation of respective initiatives through its plans and budgets, creative resource mobilisation and collaborative partnerships.
The potential of entrepreneurship as a solution to sustainable development challenges has been widely acknowledged and there is a high potential for entrepreneurship to become a channel for social and economic integration of most vulnerable groups. To achieve the economic empowerment and effective participation in social progress of all citizens, including youth, women, the rural poor and other disadvantaged groups, the strategy has identified specific measures that address constraints that affect effective participation of vulnerable groups in entrepreneurship.
Finally, Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) of the Strategy is crucial to track progress in all the six pillars of the strategy. An M&E Framework will be developed in order to:
- Determine the progress in implementing the pillars of the Strategy;
- Continuously identify and resolve all challenges and constraints arising in the course of implementing the Strategy, and
- Track the outcome and establish the impact of all entrepreneurship interventions.
The Strategy was launched on 12th December, 2017 by Hon. Stellah Manyanya (MP), Deputy Minister of Industry, Trade and Investment on behalf of the Minister of Trade, Industry and Investment.
4.0. ENTREPRENEURSHIP PROGRAMMES
The National Economic Empowerment Council coordinates empowerment programmes that are implemented by Stakeholder. Below empowerment programmes that are coordinated by NEEC:-
4.1. Young Graduate Entrepreneurship Programme
The youth population in developing countries like Tanzania continues to grow fast and so are the high levels of youth unemployment and limited economic opportunities. As such, governments and developing partners are increasingly looking for proactive approaches to help youth realize their full economic potential. Although there is recognition that not all youth are necessarily entrepreneurs, most development practitioners agree that youth are in need of a variety of financial services. But challenges exist, key among them being low financial capability to use those services effectively to invest in their education, enterprises, and their futures. Towards that end, the National Economic Empowerment Council designed the Young Graduate Entrepreneurship Training Clinic (YGETC) Programme for young people to gain business development skills so they can start or improve their businesses and mostly, create employment for themselves and other young people as well. This is achieved, amongst others, by enhancing access to finance and by providing business development services to youth-led enterprises.
The Young Graduate Entrepreneurship Clinic (YGETC) Programme started in 2013. The Programme provides University youths with an opportunity to expand their businesses or business ideas. The graduate attend sessions of entrepreneurship training and coaching in order to improver their businesses or ideas and later compete in order to select the best Business Plans.
The program has been designed to tackle an unemployment challenge by preparing graduates to have relevant knowledge, information; skills and capabilities so as to enable them to identify available opportunities and utilize them accordingly. The initiative also involves knowledge in preparing feasible business plans which would be used to apply for fund/loan from financial institutions. The program intends to enable young graduates to acquire the basic skills on entrepreneurship and preparation of business plans.
Objectives of YGEC
i.To support young entrepreneurs to develop sustainable business ideas with a potential for employment creation;
ii.To promote entrepreneurship amongst young people;
iii.To provide systematic business development mentorship over a defined period of time; and
iv.To equip youth with financial education and link successful graduate winners to potential financial institutions for start-up or expansion capital.
YGEC caters for recently graduated youth between 0 to 5 years of graduation in Tanzania who wants to start their businesses as well as those who want to expand and improve their businesses. Eligibility of the Applicants:-
i.Should be a young woman/man aged between 18-35;
ii.Should be a Tanzanian citizen;
iii.Ability to defend the idea/business; and
iv.Be able to write a bankable business plan and pitch.
Note that the programme is conducted each year subject to financial availability.
4.2. Kijana Jiajiri
The Kijana Jiajiri Programme is designed to tackle unemployment challenges for underserved youth. According to Census data 2012 the 15 – 35 year age group in Tanzania equals 15.5 million, or 34.7% of total population.Youth (15 – 24 yrs) occupy less than 1% of the jobs in the formal sector, and there are insufficient jobs created each year (est. 360,000) for the c. 800,000 - 1 million school leavers.
The Challenge is how to encourage and support under-served young entrepreneurs in Tanzania to start and develop their business with more preparation, structure, and lower risk, creating more sustainable opportunities and promoting economic development for them and their communities.
‘Kijana Jiajiri’– a dedicated programme to promote entrepreneurship among Tanzanian youth (aged 18-35) who would otherwise be unlikely or unable to start a business, and to provide them with the practical support they need to get started.
Overall Goal of the programme is to empower young Tanzanians to establish or enhance their businesses through which they can provide employment to themselves and others create wealth and fight poverty
Young adults (18 – 35 years) that are ‘under-served’, and with the potential to be an entrepreneur and with a viable business idea, but without the means to access the support needed to start in business.
Selection of the Youth
Selection of Youth into the programme focuses on:-
- The character and attitude of an entrepreneur.
- A good business idea that can be sustainable over time.
Kijana Jiajiri Specific Interventions
Kijana Jiajiri specific interventions are to:-
- Train in business and entrepreneurship skills
- Mentor and coach
- Enable access to finance
- Link to business programmes and networks
The progamme has covered Mtwara, Lindi, Dar Es Salaam, Morogoro, Coast, and Dodoma. The intention is to scale up the programme to other regions subject to financial capacity.
The Kijana Jiajiri is implemented by the Tanzania Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness Centre (TECC), a Trustee founded by the National Economic Empowerment Council, Tanzania Private Sector Foundation and Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology.